Male hormones that are also present in the female body. If their level it too high in the female blood it can lead to infertility.

Maldistribution of the chromosomes. The most common version is trisomy where one chromosome is present triple instead of double. This leads to either the death of the embryo or diseases like Down syndrome.

Embryos have to hatch from the embryonic membrane (zona pellucida), in which they developed the first five days, before implanting into the endometrium. By opening the embryonic membrane, for example with a laser, hatching is supposed to be assisted.

Embryo state 5/6 days after fertilization. This is the latest point in time the embryo can be transferred into the uterus.

Part of the nucleus and the genetic information. Humans possess 2×23=46 chromosomes. Two of those determine the sex. A female nucleus has two X chromosomes, a male nucleus has an X and a Y chromosome. Depending on whether a spermatozoon carries an X or a Y chromosome a boy or a girl develops.

The residual part of the follicle, after ovulation, turns yellow and supports the maintaining of a pregnancy in the second half of the cycle.

(Cryo has Greek origins and means: „cool, frosty“) Storage of egg cells or sperm at extremely low temperatures, usually in liquid nitrogen at -196°C. All metabolic processes in the cells come to a stop so that the cells do not age.

The body’s own hormone release can be decreased via medication. This can be helpful during stimulation therapy.

The establishment of an embryo in the Fallopian tubes, instead of the womb.

After the merging of egg cell and spermatozoon and the development of a new nucleus in the fertilized egg cell, it is considered an embryo. As of the 13th week of pregnancy the developing child is called a fetus.

Transfer of an embryo into the uterus via a thin catheter (usually 2-5 days after fertilization).

Originated from Greek (endo=in; metra=uterus). The endometrium spreads to other parts of the abdomen and causes pain during the cycle. Endometriosis is a frequent cause for infertility.

Womb mucous membrane.

(lat: östrus = readiness for copulation; gen = generate) Female sex hormone that is generated in the ovaries and used for the formation of the endometrium.

A funnel shaped duct between the ovaries and the uterus. Egg cells travel there after ovulation to be fertilized and continue on as early embryos before implanting in the uterus.

Small fluid-filled vesicle in the ovaries in which egg cells mature and stay until ovulation.

Follicle stimulating hormone that boosts growth and maturation of egg cells.

Overall term for sperm and egg cells.

Gonadotropin releasing hormone. A hormone that ensures the release of LH and FSH.

Medication that stops the release of LH and FHS.

Infection caused by the AIDS virus.

Exchanges information between different organs of the body.

Hormone that is produced by early embryos and can thus be used to confirm a pregnancy. In reproductive medicine it can also be used to trigger ovulation.

This hormone is gained from the urine of women after menopause and is used for stimulating the ovaries.

Method of artificial insemination in which a single spermatozoon is injected into the egg cell via a thin glass capillary.

Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive a child in over a year of unprotected sexual intercourse.

Insemination generally means bringing together sperm and egg cells. In a more narrow sense it is used as a synonym for IUI.

Transfer of sperm into the uterus via a thin catheter.

Literally: „In glass fertilization“. It means the fertilization of an egg cell outside the body.

Procedure for the examination of position, size and condition of abdominal organs. In this case mostly for ovaries and tubes.

Hormone that triggers ovulation.

Microsurgical technique in which sperm is taken from the epididymis. This sperm can then be used for an insemination of egg cells via ICSI.

Benign tumor in the uterus made up of muscle tissue. Myoma can be a reason for infertility or miscarriage.

Implantation of the embryo into the endometrium on the 6th day.

Egg cell

A female reproductive organ in which oocytes or eggs are produced, present in humans and other vertebrates as a pair.

In the middle of the cycle one or sometimes more follicles burst and the egg cell is released.

An embryonic organ providing nutrition for the fetus. After birth the placenta is ejected as „afterbirth“.

Female clinical picture in which the ovaries exhibit a number of small cysts and a high level of male hormones is present. PCO can cause infertility.

Fertilized egg cells in the pronuclear stage. These egg cells have two visible pronuclei and do not yet count as embryos as defined in the German embryo protection law. After the merging of the pronuclei they are considered a zygote.

Part of a mature egg cell that develops through meiosis. It contains the same genetic information as an egg cell.

Method in which the polar bodies are examined in order to gain information about the chromosomal content of the egg cell.

The physical procedure which without influence of the ovum certain structures of the inside of the cell can be made visible, for example the division spindle.

Hormone that is generated by the corpus luteum and prepares the uterus for the implantation of the embryo.

Hormone that is generated in the brain and activates the milk flow in the mammary glands.

Tissue removal through a small surgical procedure. Within the scope of an IVF this means follicle puncture, i.e. aspirating the fluid in the follicles of the ovary, or testicle puncture for the TESE.

Fertility, outgoing, if over a year of unprotected sexual intercourse no pregnancy enters.

Part of the IVF treatment in which a maximum amount of egg cells maturates in the ovaries via hormone stimulation.

Testicular sperm extraction. If there is no sperm to be found in the male ejaculate, it is possible to extract some from testicular tissue samples. This sperm can then be used to inseminate egg cells via ICSI.

The implantation of the embryo happens in the tubes instead of the uterus.

Organ in the female abdomen in which the child is carried to term. The uterus is composed of the cervix and the uterine cavity. The two fallopian tubes lead to the uterus.

Integument of the egg cell and early embryonic stages. Before implantation (nidation) the embryo has to hatch.

Fertilized egg cell after the merging of the two pronuclei (see PN stage). A zygote is considered an embryo by law and thus falls under the embryo protection law.